Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the most common inherited neurological
disorders, affecting approximately 1 in 2,500 people in the United States. The disease is
named for the three physicians who first identified it in 1886 - Jean-Martin Charcot and
Pierre Marie in Paris, France, and Howard Henry Tooth in Cambridge, England. CMT, also
known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) or peroneal muscular atrophy,
comprises a group of disorders that affect peripheral nerves. The peripheral nerves lie
outside the brain and spinal cord and supply the muscles and sensory organs in the limbs.
Disorders that affect the peripheral nerves are called peripheral neuropathies.