Endophthalmitis involves inflammation of the intraocular cavities, usually caused by an
infection. Noninfectious (sterile) endophthalmitis may be a result of retained lens
material and toxic agents. Panophthalmitis is inflammation of all coats of the eye
including intraocular structures.
The 2 types of endophthalmitis are endogenous (i.e., metastatic) and exogenous.
Endogenous endophthalmitis results from the hematogenous spread of organisms from a
distant source of infection (eg, endocarditis). Exogenous endophthalmitis results from
direct inoculation as a complication of ocular surgery, foreign bodies, or blunt or
penetrating ocular trauma.