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Cardinal positions of gaze

Cardinal positions of gaze


Cardinal positions of gaze

The “cardinal positions” are six positions of gaze which allow comparisons of the horizontal, vertical, and diagonal ocular movements produced by the six extraocular muscles.  These are the six cardinal positions:

  • up/right
  • right
  • down/right
  • down/left
  • left
  • up/left

In each position of gaze, one muscle of each eye is the primary mover of that eye and is yoked to the primary mover of the other eye.  Below, each of the six cardinal positions of gaze is shown, along with upward gaze, downward gaze, and convergence:




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